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Characterisation of palms and ornamentals in the EU: a tool for crop‐based survey of Union quarantine pests

This technical report was prepared in the context of EFSA's mandate on plant pest surveillance (M‐2020‐0114), at the request of the European Commission. Its purpose is to support the Member States in the planning and preparation of crop‐based surveys of regulated pests in line with Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. In particular, the report includes the list of palms and ornamental species reported as hosts of regulated pests within the scope of grant GP/EFSA/PLANTS/2022/10 ‘Development of crop‐based survey tools for plant pests of fruit trees, conifers, and palms and ornamentals in the EU’. A list of pests associated with palms and ornamentals is provided. In addition, the occurrence, phenology, main uses, management, distribution and climate suitability of palms and ornamentals in the EU is elaborated. Finally, the regulatory requirements and data on trade and import for palms and ornamentals are reported. In total, 111 palm tree species are reported as hosts of at least one of the regulated pests. Among them, only three are native to the EU, four are non‐native but locally abundant in the EU, while 104 palm species are considered to be very rare or absent in the EU. With the exception of the date palm, all palm species present in the EU are used for ornamental purposes. The ornamental crop group comprises 36 plant species, of which three are native to the EU, 14 are non‐native but locally abundant in the EU, and 19 are considered to be absent or very rare in the EU. Ornamentals are often cultivated in production systems ranging from low shelters or tunnels to high‐technology greenhouses or glasshouses. The most common ornamental plants in the EU that are grown as potted plants, seedlings, bulbs, corms or cut flowers include chrysanthemums, carnations, dahlias, pelargonium, gerbera and violas. Ornamentals are cultivated in all Member States; the Netherlands being by far the biggest producer.

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